Chronic Refractory Cardiac Pain Syndrome

Chest pain is usually a concerning event warranting immediate attention. This is because it can be the key symptom of a serious cardiopulmonary event. Even when the source of pain is cardiac, not all patients are suitable for coronary revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention). Angina pain is defined as chronic refractoryRead More


The vulva is the area of female sex organs that lies outside of the vagina and includes the folds of sensitive tissue called the labia (labia means “lips”). Vulvodynia is a condition characterized by chronic vulvar pain without an identifiable cause. It can be an extremely difficult condition to live with and can be indeedRead More


Dystonia is a complex neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and pain. It is the third most common movement disorder in the United States have dystonia, following essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. It can occur at any age and has no ethnic predilection. Dystonia is a disorder involving from the basal ganglia, aRead More

Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a pelvic pain condition in men. It used to be called prostadynia. It is synonymous with chronic prostatitis and should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute bacterial prostatitis. Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland and causes pelvic pain. ChronicRead More

Common Sports Injuries & Treatments: Football

American football has come under scrutiny in recent years due to the potentially debilitating injuries that are sustained while playing the game. Technological advances in helmet design and pad construction can only do so much to combat the crushing tackles, diving catches and agile footwork that make football the exciting game that it is. Unfortunately,Read More

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda Equina is the anatomic term for the collection of nerves at the end of the spinal cord, which ends at the upper portion of the lumbar spine. These nerve roots innervate the legs and the bladder, and cauda equina is the continuation of these nerve roots in the lumbar region. Cauda Equina Syndrome (CES)Read More

Post-Stroke Pain

Stroke is a critical medical event that can have long-term debilitating sequelae. Post-stroke pain is such a chronic sequela of stroke that has a huge toll on the patient’s well-being, lifestyle, and productivity. The prevalence of chronic post-stroke pain is up to 40% four to six months after a stroke. Shoulder pain is the mostRead More

Benefits of Joint Injections

Inflammation is one of your body’s first reactions to injury. When trauma occurs, blood flow to the area increases to help your immune system reach and repair the injured tissue. This induces inflammation and its associated symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, and heat. In most cases, this is a good thing – the inflammation helpsRead More

New Daily Persistent Headaches

New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary headache disorder. It is unrelated to any other condition or disorder. Presentation It can occur at any age from childhood to 70s, with the average age of onset of about 35. It is two to three times more common in women, and almost half of those withRead More